ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA PDF
Common name: Indian Wormwood, Fleabane, Mugwort • Hindi: नागदोना Nagdona, दवना Davana • Manipuri: লেইবাক ঙৌ Leibakngou. Natural products are the main stay of the alternative system of medicine. Artemisia nilagirica is commonly known as the Indian wormwood. Undershrubs, ca. m tall, aromatic, perennial, fruticose; stems paniculately branched, incanus, pubescent or tomentose. Leaves simple alternate, upper ones.
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In the modern world of therapy, medicines are in major short of new treatments. It can take many years for a new drug to get through the research and development pipeline to be available in the market and the cost is enormous. And the growing drug resistance caused by the misuse of medications, has rendered several antibiotics and other life-saving drugs useless.
Both these trends mean that scientists and pharmaceutical companies are urgently looking for new drug sources and are increasingly turning their eyes to traditional medicine. When adopted outside of its traditional culture, traditional medicine is often called alternative medicine.
The plant has been used since centuries in antimicrobial, antifungalantibacterial, antifilarial, insecticidal, antiulcer, anticancer, antioxidant and anti-asthmatic activity.
This review indicates the collected information on the description of in vitro cultivation, phytochemical constituents and therapeutic potential of A.
The pharmacological studies reported in the present review confirms the therapeutic value of A. Presences of wide range of chemical compounds indicate that the plant could serve as a potent material for the development of novel agents having good efficacy in various disorders in the coming years. Plants are a significant group among all living organisms, which acts as support system for human beings as well as other living organisms.
They have been supporting human civilization through the biologically active compounds which they contain. Plants being a source of medicine has been identified and used from ancient times. The officially documented plants with medicinal potential are few but traditional practitioners use more than plants.
India is known as the botanical garden of the world, as it contributes the most to the medicinal herb production. In rural India, over 70 percent of the total population rely on the traditional source artemusia medicine, the Ayurveda [ 1 ]. It is a medicinal plant which has been reported to be used over 10 decades and is treating diseases and symptoms like, malaria, inflammation, diabetes, stress, depression, diabetes and many other microbial diseases.
There are many species of the genus Artemisia which are recognized and considered to have many therapeutical importance. The plant has been exploited to derive many biochemical molecules and essential oils which taken into consideration for the treatment of various diseases and ailments.
Artemisia species are composed of active components which has shown to possess properties to treat parasitic and helminthic diseases. Even after its discovery and exploitation from very long period the knowledge about its phytochemistry and phytotherapy is limited. The healing potential of this medicinal plant is so efficient that it is still recommended as Ayuvedic drug.
It is used for the treatment of human parasites, animals and plants. The plant grows throughout the hilly regions of India. It is tall aromatic shrub. This medicinal herb is erect, hairy, often half-woody. The stems are leafy and branched. Leaves are alternate, large, ovate and lobbed, deeply pinnatisect with small stipule-like lobes at the base, pubescent above, nilagiriac or white-tomentose beneath; upper most leaves are nulagirica, 3-fid or entire, lanceolate. The flowers are small and stand in long narrow clusters at the top of the stem, subglobose heads, adtemisia spicate or sub erect or horizontal panicled racemes [ 4 ].
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They are nilagiirica yellow in colour. Leaves and flowering tops are bitter, astringent and aromatic. The fruit are minute, bracts ovate or artemlsia. The percentage of oil constituents and the yield of oil vary with the distribution of the plant and also depend on the growth phases Figure 1.
The therapeutic potential of herbs or medicinal plants come from its phytochemical constituents. The common phytochemicals that causes effective results on human health care are flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, glycosides etc. The phytochemical screening of A. Another analysis by Ahameethunisa et al.
Tannins were reported to be present only in ethanol, diethyl ether and methanol extracts. Volatile oils were present in methanol, hexane and petroleum ether. In hexane and petroleum ether extracts, phlobatannins was present. Also, saponins and amino acid were present in ethanol and methanol extracts with carbohydrates exclusively present in methanol extract. Interestingly, hydrolysable tannins were absent in all the extracts [ 6 ]. Phytochemical screening of A.
Medicinal plants possess many therapeutic activities among which antibacterial properties play a major role. In modern world, use of medicines such as antibiotics are causing resistance towards many pathogenic bacteria. Hence there is a need of developing new drugs from herbal or medicinal plant as they contain many bioactive chemical compounds which may have antibacterial properties.
Previously many research reports have shown the potential insecticidal [ 9 ] and antibacterial activity of A. A study used agar disk diffusion method to study the antibacterial activity of A. In this method 15 different strains of bacteria were used, to which the extracts of the plant were given, and the activity was observed. The result showed positive result for inhibitory activity of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria except for Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
In another study A. Many medicinal plants have high concentration of chemical compounds such as flavonoids, terpenes, coumarins and other phytochemicals also.
These can be considered as reason for antifungal properties in such plants [ 11 ]. Fungal infection in recent times are showing high rates specially among immunosuppressed patients, patients undergoing organ transplants, some other stem cell based therapies and among those suff ering from endemic diseases like AIDS and cancer [ 12 ].
A study reported the presence of 41 essential oils and other chemical constituents in A. In another s tudy to analyse the chemical composition of A. The major constituents of these oil were a-Thujone The study was performed by using Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry. A relation between the essential oil and antifungal activity of plant was reported.
The essential oil exhibited signi icant antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia s olani ED 50 The study indicated t hat A. Another study showed the precence of essential oils in A.
The minimum inhibitory concentration of the oil was found to be ppm. The oils were fungistatic in nature and had a broad fungitoxic spectrum [ 15 ] Table 3.
Artemisia (genus) – Wikipedia
Peptic ulcer is among major concerns in the modern world due to emergence of unhealthy food and food contamination. This disease effects about millions of people, and has high chances to affect almost every individual throughout their life time [ 16 ].
In a previous study it has been reported that these oils can have antiulcer activity. Limonene is used as flavoring agent in foods and beverages also it is considered as a low toxic component [ 18 ]. Hence, studies have shown the gastroprotective activity of this essential oil which is a major constituent of A. In an in vivo study done on rats, it was observed that A.
Antioxidant activity refers to the potential of a plant to scavenge free radicals that causes cancer and other related mutation. A study shows that the essential oils of A. The study also indicated the presence of high total phenolic and flavonoid content Hence the results indicated the substantial antioxidant activity [ 24 ].
These studies indicate that the anticancer and antioxidant effect of Ethanolic extract of A. Asthma is one of the most common respiratory disease which is caused because of exposure to common allergens present in environment [ 27 – 29 ].
In children asthma can be caused by viral infection of respiratory tract or common cold [ 3031 ]. Reactive oxygen species are associated with the pathogenesis of asthma by inducing bronchial hyper-reactivity and promoting histamine release from mast cells and mucus secretion from airway epithelial cells [ 32 ].
Also, free radicals can be considered as potent wrtemisia agents of several diseases like bronchial asthma. Free oxygen radicals cause damage to all biological membranes by attacking their protein, lipids, nucleic acids and glycoconjugates [ 33 ]. The rats shoed an efficient therapeutic property which was confirmed by low WBC count monocytes nllagirica neutrophils. It also decreased the production of nitrate ion hence, minimizing the lung inflammation of asthmatic animal models and relieving bronchial congestion when compared to ovalbumin treated group.
The in vivo antiasthmatic study, the aqueous plant extracts of A. Mosquitoes and other parasites and insects can transmit major diseases and ultimately causes millions of deaths every year.
Also to our concern, these are getting resistant to synthetic market drugs over the time. Hence, there is a need of alternative form of drug like herbal or Ayurvedic to avoid such kind of concerns. In this study the plant extract was proved significant against the action of Aedesal bopictus [ 35 ]. The first highly effective anti-malarial drug was extracted from A.
Artemisinin is the drug which is recommended worldwide against malaria [ 37 ]. The plant is found in the hilly regions of India and few other Asian countries. But due to their numerous potentials they can be cultivated in vitro. Habitat destruction for agricultural purposes and low seed viability is a major concern for the propagation of these plants. For mass multiplication and propagation of this plant tissue culture techniques should be utilized [ 3839 ]. Based on the previous comment a reliable in vitro plant culture method has been developed for the A.
The protocol suggests use of MS medium supplemented with 2. Morphological, cytological studies and ISSR marker analysis showed genetic stability of regenerants.
This has important scope for mass scale production of this efficient medicinal plant which could be used for plantation and also as a stock material for pharmaceutical uses [ 40 ]. In India it is found in the hilly regions of Sikkim, western ghats etc. The plant has many evidences from past for its therapeutic uses in parasitic infections, bacterial and fungal diseases, aetemisia, antinflammation, anti-asthmatic activity etc. It is reported to contain essential oils, sesquiterpene lactones, coumarins and nipagirica and others including many phytochemicals like alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, and terpenes, which have wide range of pharmaceutical uses.